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A type II error is committed when a true alternative hypothesis is not believed. In terms of folk tales, an investigator may fail to detect the wolf when in fact a wolf is present and therefore fail to raise an alarm. Again, H 0 , the null hypothesis, comprises the statement: "There is no wolf", which, if a wolf is indeed present, is a type II error on the part of the investigator the wolf either exists or does not exist within a given context—the only question is if it is correctly detected or not, either failing to detect it when it is present, or detecting it when it is not present.

Hypothesis: "Adding water to toothpaste protects against cavities. Null hypothesis H 0 : "Adding water does not make toothpaste more effective in fighting cavities. This null hypothesis is tested against experimental data with a view to nullifying it with evidence to the contrary. The null hypothesis is true i. Hypothesis: "Adding fluoride to toothpaste protects against cavities. Null hypothesis H 0 : "Adding fluoride to toothpaste has no effect on cavities.

The null hypothesis is false i. A positive correct outcome occurs when convicting a guilty person. A negative correct outcome occurs when letting an innocent person go free. Hypothesis: "A patient's symptoms improve after treatment A more rapidly than after a placebo treatment. Null hypothesis H 0 : "A patient's symptoms after treatment A are indistinguishable from a placebo.

A Type I error would falsely indicate that treatment A is more effective than the placebo, whereas a Type II error would be a failure to demonstrate that treatment A is more effective than placebo even though it actually is more effective. In , Jerzy Neyman — and Egon Pearson — , both eminent statisticians, discussed the problems associated with " deciding whether or not a particular sample may be judged as likely to have been randomly drawn from a certain population " [7] p.

In , they observed that these " problems are rarely presented in such a form that we can discriminate with certainty between the true and false hypothesis " p. They also noted that, in deciding whether to fail to reject, or reject a particular hypothesis amongst a " set of alternative hypotheses " p.

In all of the papers co-written by Neyman and Pearson the expression H 0 always signifies "the hypothesis to be tested". In the same paper [10] p.

It is standard practice for statisticians to conduct tests in order to determine whether or not a " speculative hypothesis " concerning the observed phenomena of the world or its inhabitants can be supported. The results of such testing determine whether a particular set of results agrees reasonably or does not agree with the speculated hypothesis.

This is why the hypothesis under test is often called the null hypothesis most likely, coined by Fisher , p.

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When the null hypothesis is nullified, it is possible to conclude that data support the " alternative hypothesis " which is the original speculated one. British statistician Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher — stressed that the "null hypothesis":. Every experiment may be said to exist only in order to give the facts a chance of disproving the null hypothesis.

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A threshold value can be varied to make the test more restrictive or more sensitive, with the more restrictive tests increasing the risk of rejecting true positives, and the more sensitive tests increasing the risk of accepting false positives. The notions of false positives and false negatives have a wide currency in the realm of computers and computer applications, as follows. Security vulnerabilities are an important consideration in the task of keeping computer data safe, while maintaining access to that data for appropriate users.

In the context of authentication, "Reject" is the "positive" outcome, which may be counterintuitive to experts in other fields. Put another way, the null hypothesis is that the user is authorized.

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Moulton , stresses the importance of:. A false positive occurs when spam filtering or spam blocking techniques wrongly classify a legitimate email message as spam and, as a result, interferes with its delivery. While most anti-spam tactics can block or filter a high percentage of unwanted emails, doing so without creating significant false-positive results is a much more demanding task.

A false negative occurs when a spam email is not detected as spam, but is classified as non-spam. A low number of false negatives is an indicator of the efficiency of spam filtering. The term "false positive" is also used when antivirus software wrongly classifies a harmless file as a virus. The incorrect detection may be due to heuristics or to an incorrect virus signature in a database.

Similar problems can occur with antitrojan or antispyware software. Detection algorithms of all kinds often create false positives.

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Optical character recognition OCR software may detect an "a" where there are only some dots that appear to be an "a" to the algorithm being used. False positives are routinely found every day in airport security screening , which are ultimately visual inspection systems. The installed security alarms are intended to prevent weapons being brought onto aircraft; yet they are often set to such high sensitivity that they alarm many times a day for minor items, such as keys, belt buckles, loose change, mobile phones, and tacks in shoes.

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The ratio of false positives identifying an innocent traveller as a terrorist to true positives detecting a would-be terrorist is, therefore, very high; and because almost every alarm is a false positive, the positive predictive value of these screening tests is very low. The relative cost of false results determines the likelihood that test creators allow these events to occur. As the cost of a false negative in this scenario is extremely high not detecting a bomb being brought onto a plane could result in hundreds of deaths whilst the cost of a false positive is relatively low a reasonably simple further inspection the most appropriate test is one with a low statistical specificity but high statistical sensitivity one that allows a high rate of false positives in return for minimal false negatives.

The null hypothesis is that the input does identify someone in the searched list of people, so:. If the system is designed to rarely match suspects then the probability of type II errors can be called the " false alarm rate". On the other hand, if the system is used for validation and acceptance is the norm then the FAR is a measure of system security, while the FRR measures user inconvenience level.

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In the practice of medicine, there is a significant difference between the applications of screening and testing. For example, most states in the USA require newborns to be screened for phenylketonuria and hypothyroidism , among other congenital disorders. Although they display a high rate of false positives, the screening tests are considered valuable because they greatly increase the likelihood of detecting these disorders at a far earlier stage.

The simple blood tests used to screen possible blood donors for HIV and hepatitis have a significant rate of false positives; however, physicians use much more expensive and far more precise tests to determine whether a person is actually infected with either of these viruses.

Perhaps the most widely discussed false positives in medical screening come from the breast cancer screening procedure mammography. One consequence of the high false positive rate in the US is that, in any year period, half of the American women screened receive a false positive mammogram. They also cause women unneeded anxiety. The lowest rates are generally in Northern Europe where mammography films are read twice and a high threshold for additional testing is set the high threshold decreases the power of the test.

The ideal population screening test would be cheap, easy to administer, and produce zero false-negatives, if possible. Such tests usually produce more false-positives, which can subsequently be sorted out by more sophisticated and expensive testing. False negatives and false positives are significant issues in medical testing. False negatives may provide a falsely reassuring message to patients and physicians that disease is absent, when it is actually present. This sometimes leads to inappropriate or inadequate treatment of both the patient and their disease.

A common example is relying on cardiac stress tests to detect coronary atherosclerosis , even though cardiac stress tests are known to only detect limitations of coronary artery blood flow due to advanced stenosis. False negatives produce serious and counter-intuitive problems, especially when the condition being searched for is common. False positives can also produce serious and counter-intuitive problems when the condition being searched for is rare, as in screening.

If a test has a false positive rate of one in ten thousand, but only one in a million samples or people is a true positive , most of the positives detected by that test will be false. The probability that an observed positive result is a false positive may be calculated using Bayes' theorem. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about erroneous outcomes of statistical tests. For closely related concepts in binary classification and testing generally, see false positives and false negatives. Concepts from statistical hypothesis testing. This article may be too technical for most readers to understand.

Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-experts , without removing the technical details. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Coverage probability. Main article: Null hypothesis. Main articles: computer security and computer insecurity. Main articles: explosive detection and metal detector. Further information: False positives and false negatives. Well, ever since JK Rowling announced Dumbledore was gay, I thought she should have made that just slightly more clear in the books — been looking for hints but cant actually find any obvious ones.

Im sorry I cant help to find that list. Once again, Im with Huey. I need to artistically investigate a certain object or thing and then express it from different points of view and with different medias and styles. Description About the AuthorStanton A. Parikh books Download of and Methodology ABC Applied Research Biostatistics pdf for free epub pdf Well, ever since JK Rowling announced Dumbledore was gay, I thought she should have made that just slightly more clear in the books — been looking for hints but cant actually find any obvious ones.