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Abandon it. In so far as a scientific statement speaks about reality, it must be falsifiable. And in so far as it is not falsifiable, it does not speak about reality. If this thing works, and if nobody else does it before me, I will be rich. If X steals something from Y, then X is a thief and Y is a victim of theft. If Bob steals something, then Bob is a thief. If Alice steals something, then Alice is a thief. If X receives his diploma and X weeps for joy, then X receives his diploma. If Bob sings at time point , then it rains at time point If Bob sings today, then it rains today.

If Bob sings now, then it rains now. If the Earth is flat, then Bill Gates is poor. If the Earth is flat, then Alice loves Bob. Some cocks think the sun rises because of them. Bob keeps sending secret SMS all day long.


Carla is in love with Bob. Alice keeps sending secret SMS all day long. Alice is in love with Bob. Alice is in love with Frank. If chocolate is sweet, then Alice likes chocolate. If honey is sweet, then Alice likes honey. If cake is sweet, then Alice likes cake. If soup is sweet, then Alice likes soup. Chocolate is sweet. Alice likes chocolate. Honey is sweet.

Deductive, Inductive and Abductive Reasoning - TIP Sheet - Butte College

Alice likes honey. Cake is sweet. If X is below 18 years of age, and if X is accompanied by his grandchildren, then X may use the train for free. Whenever X eats toothpaste, X gets diarrhea. Whenever X eats toothpaste, X does not feel well. If X is a fire and X has been lit by a being with two eyes, then X has been lit by a being with two eyes. If X is a fire and X has been lit by a being with two eyes, then X has been lit by a human. If X eats too much sweets, then X attracts caries.

If X eats too much chocolate, then X attracts caries. If X eats too much sweets or climbs Mount Everest, then X attracts caries. If X was one of the participants of the scientific study in the year , and if X ate too much sweets, then X attracted caries. Science may be described as the art of systematic over-simplification — the art of discerning what we may with advantage omit.

Whenever the tide rises, the moon is close to the Earth. Whenever the moon is close to the Earth, the tide rises.

No matter how many instances of white swans we may have observed, this does not justify the conclusion that all swans are white. I have a theory on bananas: The yellow color of bananas makes people happy. Therefore, people who eat more bananas than the average are happier than the average. The search and striving for truth and knowledge is one of the highest of man's qualities. I never can catch myself at any time without a perception, and never can observe any thing but the perception.

It has bubbles in it. A coke, e. When you shake it in a bottle, it produces lots of foam. And so this is what we do: We build theories of reality, we see where they fail, and we build new ones. And with each step, we understand this world a little bit better. If X takes away something that belongs to someone else, then X is a thief. If X is a thief, then X acts in a morally wrong way according to this framework. Alice: Yesterday, I stayed at home all day to work for school. Bob: But I saw you at the tennis court in the afternoon!

Yes, you are older than me. But why should that mean that you should keep the money? Yes, I agree. Al Qaida bombed the World Trade Center. But this does not change the fact that the US invaded Afghanistan. Thereby, the US is not a peaceful country. My teacher gave me a bad grade not because I did bad in the exam, but because I am a foreigner.

She didn't greet me because she hates me. That's an insinuation. There is no evidence for it. Hence, it's more reasonable to believe in the most plausible explanation for now. Alice: Your proposal to invest in this fund is against the policy guidelines of our company. Bob: Yes, but apart from that, is there anything you can say against it? Bob: Well, it all depends.

  • Theory and Observation in Science.
  • The Day Christmas Didnt Come;
  • Collecting Movie Posters: An Illustrated Reference Guide to Movie Art—Posters, Press Kits, and Lobby Cards.
  • Defining Critical Thinking.
  • Rationality;
  • The scientific method.

It depends on your parents' education, on your social environment, and on your own desire to learn. Alice: God has healed this guy from cancer!

Critical Thinking

Bob: Great! So, why does he not heal others from cancer? Alice: The Lord knows best what he does. Alice: You failed miserably in the math exam! You should work harder! Bob: But I did well in the English exam! That is true, but irrelevant. It does not change the fact that repeat your point. Alice: What you are doing to your wife is not nice, Bob! Bob: Well, come on. Other couples are already divorced! That may be true, but it does not change the fact that repeat your point here. Alice: We should liberalize the laws on beer. Bob: No, any society with unrestricted access to intoxicants loses its work ethic and goes only for immediate gratification.

Nobody claimed we should grant unrestricted access to intoxicants in general. I was just saying we should liberalize the laws on beer.

Alice: I would like to go swimming today. Bob: I don't see why you always have to go swimming! Bob: My advice can help you with your problem! Alice: But you do not know enough about my problem to give me advice. Bob: Yes, that is because you do not tell me enough! Bob: X is a secular country Alice: But the constitution of country X says that its president has to be of a certain religion. If a country prescribes the religion of its president, it is not secular.

Bob: Yes, X prescribes the religion of its president because the majority of people in X is of that religion and they would not accept a president of another religion. Alice: People are xenophobic because, statistically, foreigners are more likely to be criminals than other people. Bob: But foreigners are just more likely to be criminals because they are more likely to be young, male, jobless and without education.

These factors correlate with criminality, for foreigners as well as for natives. Alice: To counter the problem of youth criminality, we can either use harder penalties or try to prevent the crimes in the first place, for example by investing more in education. Bob: I think we should invest more in education! Alice: OK, so you think that the current laissez-faire attitude of the courts is OK. Assuming that someone who tells us something endorses what he is telling us. Assuming that a member of a group identifies with the bad things that the group or some of its members do or did.

Yes, it is quite normal that animals are mistreated in husbandry, but that does not mean we should tolerate it. Alice: In general, men are more likely to become criminals than women. Bob: Well, you cannot really say that. I read about a woman who stole a car. So it all depends. Alice: Why don't we simply go watch a movie?

Bob: er Alice: OK, let's go watch a movie. Now I ask you: Will a minimum wage increase the workers' living standard or not? So do you think it is normal that this country invaded this other country? I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.


Repeat your argument until you get it acknowledged by your interlocutor. Alice: We should get the tickets for the cinema. Bob: The movie will be awesome, I have read so many good things about it! Alice: We already have the tickets for the cinema. Alice: Bob, we are talking about two different things! However, that is not the only process used for gathering information to support or refute a theory.

There are two research methods used to gather empirical measurements and data: qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative research, often used in the social sciences, examines the reasons behind human behavior, according to Oklahoma State University. It involves data that can be found using the human senses. This type of research is often done in the beginning of an experiment. Quantitative research involves methods that are used to collect numerical data and analyze it using statistical methods, according to the IT University of Copenhagen.

Quantitative numerical data can be any data that uses measurements, including mass, size or volume, according to Midwestern State University, in Wichita Falls, Texas. This type of research is often used at the end of an experiment to refine and test the previous research. Identifying empirical evidence in another researcher's experiments can sometimes be difficult.

According to the Pennsylvania State University Libraries, there are some things one can look for when determining if evidence is empirical:. The objective of science is that all empirical data that has been gathered through observation, experience and experimentation is without bias.

The strength of any scientific research depends on the ability to gather and analyze empirical data in the most unbiased and controlled fashion possible. However, in the s, scientific historian and philosopher Thomas Kuhn promoted the idea that scientists can be influenced by prior beliefs and experiences, according to the Center for the Study of Language and Information. Because scientists are human and prone to error, empirical data is often gathered by multiple scientists who independently replicate experiments.

This also guards against scientists who unconsciously, or in rare cases consciously, veer from the prescribed research parameters, which could skew the results.

The recording of empirical data is also crucial to the scientific method, as science can only be advanced if data is shared and analyzed. Peer review of empirical data is essential to protect against bad science, according to the University of California. Empirical laws and scientific laws are often the same thing. Empirical laws are scientific laws that can be proven or disproved using observations or experiments, according to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary. So, as long as a scientific law can be tested using experiments or observations, it is considered an empirical law.